BIODIVERSIDADE ACREANA
Photobucket
BIODIVERSIDADE E SOCIODIVERSIDADE ACREANA SOB A ÓTICA CIENTÍFICA
25 de março de 2008
Predicting geographical distribution models of high-value timber trees in the Amazon Basin using remotely sensed data

Ecological Modelling
Volume 211, Issues 3-4, 10 March 2008, Pages 309-323

Cássia Da Conceição Prates-Clarka, b, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Sassan S. Saatchib, c and Donat Agostid

aSchool of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Road, Bristol, BS8 1SS, UK
bCenter for Tropical Research, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
cJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
dNaturmuseum der Burgergemeinde Bern, 3005 Bern, Switzerland
Received 13 May 2006; revised 17 September 2007; accepted 21 September 2007. Available online 26 November 2007.

Abstract

Species previous termdistribution modelsnext term were developed for three previous termhighnext term economic previous termvalue timber treesnext term (Calophyllum brasiliensis, Carapa guianensis and Virola surinamensis) that are heavily harvested in the previous termAmazon Basin.next term A combination of habitat measurements extracted from remote sensing previous termdatanext term (MODIS, QSCAT and SRTM) and bioclimatic surfaces was examined to ascertain the most influential factors determining the occurrence of these previous termtreenext term species. The prediction of species’ occurrence rates was tested separately for each species previous termdistribution modelnext term and the results were examined for their ability to accurately map the spatial previous termdistribution of these treenext term species. By evaluating the omission and commission rates we concluded that species previous termdistribution modelsnext term based on remote sensing previous termdatanext term contributed significantly in quantifying environmental properties used to summarize the ecological niche of each previous termtreenext term species. Specific vegetation characteristics (such as percentage of previous termtreenext term cover, vegetation moisture and roughness, annual NDVI and mean LAI during the dry LAI) showed the dependence of these species’ occurrence in more densely vegetated forests. Areas with previous termhighnext term leaf area (even during the dry months) and areas with previous termhighnext term vegetation moisture were predicted as potential species habitat for C. brasiliensis. The density vegetation during the dry season and vegetation phenology were strongly correlated with climate differences, such as variations in air temperature and precipitation seasonality for V. surinamensis. Lower elevation areas with more exuberant vegetation and a previous termhighnext term greenness index were among the most important factors accounting for the previous termgeographical distributionnext term of C. guianensis. Species previous termdistribution modelsnext term are increasingly important in many fields of research and conservation. The potential of previous termremotely sensed datanext term to monitor environmental changes in tropical areas, along with the understanding of ecosystem function, are both critical for conservation of biodiversity and the long-term process of sustaining ecosystems.

Keywords: previous termAmazon Basinnext term; Climate variables; Ecological niche; Remote sensing previous termdatanext term; Species previous termdistribution model; Timber treesnext term



ImageDisplay Full Size version of this image (57K)

Fig. 1. Data points of species’ occurrence for Calophyllum brasiliensis, Carapa guianensis and Virola surinamensis.

ImageDisplay Full Size version of this image (100K)

Fig. 2. The predictive potential geographical maps for Calophyllum brasiliensis based on: (a) ‘Climate-model’, (b) ‘RS-model’ and (c) ‘RS and Climate’.

ImageDisplay Full Size version of this image (81K)

Fig. 3. The predictive potential geographical maps for Carapa guianensis based on: (a) ‘Climate-model’, (b) ‘RS-model’ and (c) ‘RS and Climate’.

ImageDisplay Full Size version of this image (86K)

Fig. 4. The predictive potential geographical maps for Virola surinamensis based on: (a) ‘Climate-model’, (b) ‘RS-model’ and (c) ‘RS and Climate’.


Table 1.

List of remote sensed data and products used in this study

Data record
Instrument
Vegetation/landscape parameter
RS metrics at 5 km resolution
Monthly NDVI (2000–2001)MODISVegetation type and seasonalityNDVI-1: maximum NDVI



NDVI-2: annual mean NDVI



NDVI-3: mean NDVI wet months



NDVI-4: mean NDVI dry months

Monthly (2000–2001) leaf area index (LAI)MODISVegetation type, seasonality, productivityLAI-1: maximum LAI



LAI-2: annual mean LAI



LAI-3: mean LAI wet months



LAI-4: mean LAI dry months

Percent tree cover (2000–2001)MODISForest cover and heterogeneityVCF: continuous field product

Scatterometer backscatter monthly composites at 1 km (1999–2004)QuickSCATVegetation moisture, leaf/wood densityQSCAT-H: mean backscatter HH



QSCAT-V: mean backscatter VV



QSCAT-SH: std. backscatter HH



QSCAT-SV: std. backscatter VV

Digital elevation (100 m resolution) 2000SRTMSurface elevationSRTM-HGT: mean elevation



SRTM-STD: ruggedness factor
Table 2.

The potential predictor variables used to generate the RS and Climate distribution models

RS
Climate
Calophyllum brasiliensis
LAI of driest quarter and its seasonality (LAI-4 and LAI-2)Annual precipitation
Vegetation moisture and roughness (QSCAT-H)Precipitation of the wettest month

Percent of tree coverPrecipitation of the wettest quarter

Precipitation of coldest quarter

Temperature seasonality

Carapa guianensis
Elevation (SRTM)Temperature annual range
Vegetation moisture and roughness (QSCAT-H)Mean diurnal range
Maximum NDVIMinimum temperature of coldest month
LAI of driest quarter (LAI-4)Temperature seasonality

Virola surinamensis
Elevation (SRTM)Mean diurnal range
LAI of driest quarter (LAI-4)Temperature seasonality

Canopy moisture and roughness (QSCAT-H, -V and -SV)Annual precipitation

Precipitation of the wettest month
Table 3.

Comparisons of ‘RS’, ‘Climate’ and ‘RS and Climate’ models performances for Calophyllum brasiliensis, Carapa guianensis and Virola surinamensis


Balance thresholda
Fraction of predicted area
AUC
Calophyllum brasiliensis
RS1.5010.8880.728
Climate2.0070.8580.751
RS and Climate1.5370.5750.877

Carapa brasiliensis
RS0.5000.6780.880
Climate4.5040.4400.898
RS and Climate1.5020.6250.825

Virola surinamensis
RS2.0010.6240.855
Climate1.2500.6250.852
RS and Climate1.2500.5750.877
a Balance threshold was based on training omission rate and fraction of predicted area.Table 4.

Species’ occurrence probabilities (%) on areas where the species have been observed


RS
Climate
RS and Climate
Calophyllum brasiliensis
Average56.0555.7855.40
>3074.6876.8383.54
>4069.6267.0768.35
>5060.7657.3255.70
>7535.4426.8332.91

Carapa guianensis
Average55.5655.4452.72
>3075.6882.4377.03
>4067.5770.2764.86
>5060.8155.4156.76
>7525.6821.6221.62

Virola surinamensis
Average54.0354.7853.06
>3074.3871.9076.03
>4068.6066.1266.94
>5060.3356.2058.68
>7527.2725.6224.80


References

Anderson et al., 2003 R.P. Anderson, D. Lew and A.T. Peterson, Evaluating predictive models of species’ distributions: criteria for selecting optimal models, Ecol. Model. 162 (2003), pp. 211–232. SummaryPlus | Full Text + Links | PDF (832 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (158)

Anderson and Martínez-Meyer, 2004 R.P. Anderson and E. Martínez-Meyer, Modelling species’ geographic distributions for conservation assessments: an implementation with the spiny pocket mice (Heteromys) of Ecuador, Biol. Conserv. 116 (2004), pp. 167–179. SummaryPlus | Full Text + Links | PDF (531 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (23)

Asner et al., 2005 G.P. Asner, D.E. Knapp, E.N. Broadbent, P.J.C. Oliveira, M. Keller and J.N. Silva, Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon, Science 310 (2005), pp. 480–482. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (50)

Bena, 1960 P. Bena, Famille des Lécythidacées in essences forestières de Guyane, Bureau Agricole et Forestier Guyanais, Paris (1960).

Boone et al., 2000 R.B. Boone, K.A. Galvin, N.M. Smith and S.J. Lynn, Generalizing El Nino effects upon Maasai lovestock using hierarchical clusters of vegetation patterns, PHOTOGRAMM ENG REM S 66 (6) (2000), pp. 737–744. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (20)

Brown and Lugo, 1990 S. Brown and A.E. Lugo, Tropical secondary forests, J. Trop. Ecol. 6 (1990), pp. 1–32. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (328)

Callado et al., 2001 C.H. Callado, S.J. da Silva Neto, F.R. Scarano and C.G. Costa, Periodicity of growth rings in some flood-prone trees of the Atlantic rainforest in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Trees 15 (2001), pp. 492–497. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (10)

Cantor et al., 1999 S.B. Cantor, C.C. Sun, G. Tortolero-Luna, R. Richards-Kortum and M. Follen, A comparison of C/B ratios from studies using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, J. Clin. Epidemiol. 52 (1999), pp. 885–892. SummaryPlus | Full Text + Links | PDF (199 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (17)

Carpenter et al., 2004 L.F. Carpenter, J.D. Nicholos and E. Sandi, Early growth of native and exotic trees planted on degraded tropical pasture, For. Ecol. Manage. 196 (2004), pp. 367–378.

Carvalho et al., 2002 G. Carvalho, D. Nepstad, D. McGrath, M.del C.V. Diaz, M. Santilli and A.C. Barros, Frontier expansion in the Amazon: balancing development and sustainability, Environment 44 (2002), pp. 34–45. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (14)

Chase et al., 1996 T.N. Chase, R.A. Pielke, T.G.F. Kittel, R. Nemani and S.W. Running, The sensitivity of a general circulation model to large-scale vegetation changes, J. Geophys. Res. 101 (1996), pp. 7393–7408. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (91)

Connell and Slatyer, 1977 J.H. Connell and R.O. Slatyer, Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization, Am. Nat. 111 (1977), pp. 1119–1144. Full Text via CrossRef

Connell, 1978 J.H. Connell, Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs—high diversity of trees and corals is maintained only in a non-equilibrium state, Science 199 (1978), pp. 1302–1310. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (1798)

Daly et al., 2002 C. Daly, W.P. Gibson, G.H. Taylor, G.L. Johnson and P. Pasteris, A knowledge-based approach to the statistical mapping of climate, Climate Res. 22 (2002), pp. 99–113. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (83)

de Granville, 1988 J.J. de Granville, Phytogeographical characteristics of the Guianan forests, Taxon 37 (1988), pp. 578–594. Full Text via CrossRef

de Oliveira and Mori, 1999 A.A. de Oliveira and S.A. Mori, A central Amazonian terra firme forest. I. High tree species richness on poor soils, Biodiv. Conserv. 8 (1999), pp. 1219–1244. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (60)

DeFries et al., 2002 R.S. DeFries, R.A. Houghton, M.C. Hansen, C.B. Field, D. Skole and J. Townshend, Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and regrowth based on satellite observations for the 1980s and 90s, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 99 (2002), pp. 14256–14261. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (84)

Della Pietra et al., 1997 S. Della Pietra, V. Della Pietra and J. Lafferty, Inducing features of random fields, Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 19 (4) (1997).

Dudik et al., 2004 M. Dudik, S.J. Phillips and R.E. Schapire, Performance guarantees for regularized maximum entropy density estimation, Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Conference on Computational Learning Theory (2004), pp. 472–486.

Efron, 1979 B. Efron, Bootstrap methods: another look at the jackknife, Ann. Stat. 7 (1979), pp. 1–26. MathSciNet

Eggleton et al., 1998 P. Eggleton, R. Homathevi, D. Jeeva, D.T. Jones, R.G. Davies and M. Maryati, The species richness and composition of termites (Isoptera) in primary and regenerating lowland dipterocarp forest in Sabah, east Malaysia, Ecotropica 3 (1998), pp. 119–128.

Engler et al., 2004 R. Engler, A. Guisan and L. Rechsteiner, An improved approach for predicting the distribution of rare and endangered species from occurrence and pseudo-absence data, Journal of Applied Ecology 41 (2004), pp. 263–274. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (86)

Fisch and dos Santos, 2001 E. Fisch and F.A.M. dos Santos, Demography, phenology and sex of Calophyllum brasiliensis (Clusiaceae) trees in the Atlantic forest, J. Trop. Ecol. 7 (6) (2001), pp. 903–909.

Fisher et al., 1991 B.L. Fisher, H.F. Howe and J.S. Wright, Survival and growth of Virola surinamensis yearlings: Water augmentation in gap and understory, Oecologia 86 (2) (1991), pp. 292–297. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (42)

Forget, 1996 P.M. Forget, Removal of seeds of Carapa procera (Meliaceae) by rodents and their fate in rainforest in French Guiana, J. Trop. Ecol. 12 (1996), pp. 751–761. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (52)

Fraser and Currie, 1996 R.H. Fraser and D.J. Currie, The species richness-energy hypothesis in a system where historical factors are thought to prevail: coral reefs, Am. Nat. 148 (1996), pp. 138–159. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (74)

Gentry, 1982a A.H. Gentry, Neotropical floristic diversity: phytogeographical connections between Central and South America, Pleistocene climatic fluctuations, or an ancient of the Andean orogeny?, Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 69 (1982), pp. 557–593. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (143)

Gentry, 1982b A.H. Gentry, Patterns of neotropical plant diversity, Evol. Biol. 15 (1982), pp. 1–84.

Graham et al., 2004 C.H. Graham, S. Ferrier, F. Huettman, C. Moritz and A.T. Peterson, New developments in museum-based informatics and application in biodiversity analysis, Trends Ecol. Evol. 19 (2004), pp. 497–503. SummaryPlus | Full Text + Links | PDF (139 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (83)

Guariguata and Dupuy, 1997 M.R. Guariguata and J.M. Dupuy, Forest regeneration in abandoned logging roads in lowland Costa Rica, Biotropica 29 (1997), pp. 15–28. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (36)

Guariguata et al., 2000 M.R. Guariguata, J.J. Rosales-Adame and B. Finegan, Seed removal and fate in two selectively logged lowland forests with contrasting protection levels, Conserv. Biol. 14 (2000), pp. 1046–1054. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (17)

Guariguata et al., 2002 M.R. Guariguata, H.A. Claire and G. Jones, Tree seed fate in a logged and fragmented forest landscape, Northeastern Costa Rica, Biotropica 34 (2002), pp. 405–415. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (18)

Guisan et al., 2007 A. Guisan, C.H. Graham, J. Elith, F. Huettmann and and the N NCEAS Species Distribution Modelling Group, Sensitivity of predictive species distribution models to change in grain size, Diversity and Distributions 13 (2007), pp. 332–340. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (5)

Haffer, 1969 J. Haffer, Speciation in Amazonian forest birds, Science 165 (1969), pp. 131–137.

Haffer, 1993 J. Haffer, Time's cycle and time's arrow in the history of Amazonia, Biogeographica 69 (1993), pp. 15–45.

Haffer and Prance, 2001 J. Haffer and G.T. Prance, Climatic forcing of evolution in Amazonia during the Cenozoic: on the refuge theory of biotic differentiation, Amazoniana 16 (2001), pp. 579–607. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (44)

Hall et al., 1994 P. Hall, L.C. Orrell and K.S. Bawa, Genetic diversity and mating system in a tropical tree, Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae), Am. J. Bot. 81 (9) (1994), pp. 1104–1111. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (54)

Hansen et al., 2000 M.C. Hansen, R.S. DeFries, J.R.G. Townshend and R. Sohlberg, Global land cover classification at 1 km spatial resolution using a classification tree approach, Int. J. Remote Sens. 21 (2000), pp. 1331–1364. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (342)

Hansen et al., 2002 M. Hansen, R. DeFries, J.R.G. Townshend, R. Sohlberg, C. Dimiceli and M. Carrol, Towards an operational MODIS continuous field of percent tree cover algorithm: examples using AVHRR and MODIS, Remote Sens. Environ. 3 (2002), pp. 303–319. SummaryPlus | Full Text + Links | PDF (2338 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (75)

Hays et al., 1976 J.D. Hays, J. Imbrie and N.J. Shackleton, Variations in the Earth's orbit: pacemaker of the ice ages, Science 194 (1976), pp. 1121–2113.

Hijmans et al., 2005 R.J. Hijmans, S.E. Cameron, J.L. Parra, P.G. Jones and A. Jarvis, Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas, Int. J. Climatol. 25 (2005), pp. 1965–1978. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (84)

Howe et al., 1985 H.F. Howe, E.W. Schupp and L.C. Westley, Early consequences of seed dispersal for a Neotropical tree (Virola surinamensis), Ecology 66 (1985), pp. 781–791. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (135)

Howe, 1990 H.F. Howe, Survival and growth of juvenile Virola surinamensis in Panama: effects of herbivory and canopy closure, J. Trop. Ecol. 6 (1990), pp. 259–280. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (73)

Hubbell et al., 1999 S.P. Hubbell, R.B. Foster, S.T. O’Brien, K.E. Harms, R. Condit, B. Wechsler, S.J. Wright and S.L. De Lao, Light-gap disturbances, recruitment limitation and tree diversity in a neotropical forest, Science 283 (1999), pp. 554–557. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (349)

Janos, 1980 D.P. Janos, Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae affect lowland tropical rainforest plant growth, Ecology 61 (1) (1980), pp. 151–162. Full Text via CrossRef

Jarvis et al., 2004 Jarvis, A., Rubiano, J., Nelson, A., Farrow, A., Mulligan, M., 2004. Practical use of SRTM data in the tropics: comparisons with digital elevation models generated from cartographic data. Working document 198. International Center for Tropical Agriculture, California, Columbia.

Karl et al., 2000 J. Karl, P.J. Heglund, E.O. Garton, J.M. Scott, N.M. Wright and R.L. Hutto, Sensitivity of species habitat-relationship model performance to factors of scale, Ecol. Appl. 10 (2000), pp. 1690–1705. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (26)

Karl et al., 2002 J. Karl, W.L.K.S. Vancara, P.J.H. Eglung, N.M.W. Right and J.M.S. Coot, Species commonness and the accuracy of habitat-relationship models. In: J.M. Scott, P.J. Heglund and M.I. Morrison, Editors, Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale, Island Press, Washington, DC (2002), pp. 573–580.

King, 2003 R.T. King, Succession and micro-elevation effects on seedling establishment of Calophyllum brasiliensis Camb. (Clusiaceae) in an Amazonian River meander forest, Biotropica 35 (2003), pp. 462–471. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (6)

Lin, 1998 Lin, C.C., 1998. Emerging scatterometer applications. European Space Agency Spec. Publ. ESA SP-424, 25–31.

Liu et al., 2005 C. Liu, P.M. Berry, T.P. Dawson and R.G. Pearson, Selecting threshold of occurrence in the prediction of species distributions, Ecography 28 (2005), pp. 385–393. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (38)

Long and Drinkwater, 2000 D.G. Long and M.R. Drinkwater, Azimuth variation in microwave scatterometer and radiometer data over Antarctica, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38 (4) (2000), pp. 1857–1870. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (23)

Long et al., 2001 D.G. Long, M.R. Drinkwater, B. Holt, S. Saatchi and C. Bertoia, Global ice and land climate studies using scatterometer image data, EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 82 (43) (2001), p. 503.

Lopes et al., 2004 N.P. Lopes, M. Yoshida and M.J. Kato, Byosynthesis of Tetrahydrofuran lignans in Virola surinamensis, Brazil. J. Pharm. Sci. 40 (1) (2004), pp. 54–59.

Malhi et al., 2004 Y. Malhi, T. Baker, O.L. Phillips, S. Almeida, S. Alvarez, L. Arroyo, J. Chave, C.I. Czimczik, A. Di Fiore, N. Higushi, T.J. Killeen, S.G. Laurance, W.F. Laurance, S.L. Lewis, L.M.M. Montoya, A. Monteagudo, S.A. Neill, P.N. Vargas, S. Patino, N.C.A. Pitman, C.A. Quesada, R. Salomao, J.N.M. Silva, A.T. Lezama, R.V. Martinez, J. Terborgh, B. Vicenti and J. Lloyd, The above-ground coarse wood productivity of 104 Neotropical forest plots, Global Change Biol. 10 (2004), pp. 1–29.

Marques and Joly, 2000 M.C.M. Marques and C.A. Joly, Seed germination and growth of Calophyllum brasiliensis (Clusiaceae), a typical species of flooded forests, Acta Botanica Brasilica 14 (1) (2000), pp. 113–120.

Myneni et al., 1995 R.B. Myneni, F.B. Hall, P.J. Sellers and A.L. Marshak, The interpretation of spectral vegetation indices, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33 (1995), pp. 481–486. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (136)

Myneni et al., 1997 R.B. Myneni, C.D. Keeling, C.J. Tucker, G. Asrarm and R.R. Nemani, Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991, Nature 386 (1997), pp. 698–702. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (776)

Myneni et al., 1998 R.B. Myneni, C.J. Tucker, C.D. Keeling and G. Asrar, Interannual variation in satellite-sensed vegetation index data from 1981 to 1991, J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D6) (1998), pp. 6145–6160. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (110)

Myneni et al., 2002 R.B. Myneni, S. Hoffman, Y. Knyazikhin, J.L. Privette, J. Glassy, Y. Tian, Y. Wang, X. Song, Y. Zhang, G.R. Smith, A. Lotsch, M. Friedl, J.T. Morisette, P. Votava, R.R. Nemani and S.W. Running, Global products of vegetation leaf area and fraction absorbed PAR from year one of MODIS data, Remote Sens. Environ. 83 (2002), pp. 214–231. SummaryPlus | Full Text + Links | PDF (1168 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (181)

Mori and Prance, 1990b S.A. Mori and G.T. Prance, Taxonomy, ecology and economic botany of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl: Lecythidaceae), Adv. Econ. Bot. 8 (1990), pp. 130–150.

NASA, 2006 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2006. In NASA web site, www.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm Nepstad, D.C., Veríssimo Alencar, A., Nobre, C., Lima, E., Lefebvre, P., Schlesinger, P., Potter, C., Moutinho, P., Mendoza, E., Cochrane, M., Brooks, V., 1999. Large-scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire. Nature 398, 505–508.

Nepstad et al., 1999 D.C. Nepstad, Veríssimo, A. Alencar, C. Nobre, E. Lima, P. Lefebvre, P. Schlesinger, C. Potter, P. Moutinho, E. Mendoza, M. Cochrane and V. Brooks, Large-scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire, Nature 398 (1999), pp. 505–508. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (381)

Nepstad et al., 2004 D. Nepstad, C.A. Ramos, E. Lima, D. McGrath, C. Pereira and F. Merry, Managing the Amazon timber industry, Conserv. Biol. 18 (2) (2004), pp. 575–577. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (8)

New et al., 1999 M. New, M. Hulme and P. Jones, Representing twentieth-century space-time climate variability. Part I: Development of a 1961–90 mean monthly terrestrial climatology, J. Climate 12 (1999), pp. 829–856. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (508)

New et al., 2002 M. New, D. Lister, M. Hulme and I. Makin, A high-resolution data set of surface climate over global land areas, Climate Res. 21 (2002), pp. 1–25. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (173)

O’Brien et al., 2000 E.M. O’Brien, R. Field and R.J. Whittaker, Climatic gradients in woody plant (tree and shrub) diversity: water-energy dynamics, residual variation, and topography, Oikos 89 (2000), pp. 588–600.

Parra et al., 2004 J.L. Parra, C.C. Graham and J.F. Freile, Evaluating alternative data sets for ecological niche models of birds in Andes, Ecography 27 (2004), pp. 350–360. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (15)

Pausas et al., 2003 J.G. Pausas, J. Carreras, A. Ferré and X. Font, Coarse-scale plant species richness in relation to environmental heterogeneity, J. Veg. Sci. 14 (2003), pp. 661–668. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (21)

Peterson and Cohoon, 1999 A.T. Peterson and K.P. Cohoon, Sensitivity of distributional prediction algorithms to geographic data completeness, Ecol. Model. 117 (1999), pp. 159–164.

Peterson and Viglais, 2001 A.T. Peterson and D.A. Viglais, Predicting species invasions using ecological niche modelling, BioScience 51 (2001), pp. 363–371. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (125)

Phillips et al., 2004 S.J. Phillips, M. Dudik and R.E. Schapire, A maximum entropy approach to species distribution modelling, Proceedings of the Twenty-first Century International Conference on Machine Learning, ACM Press, New York (2004), pp. 655–662.

Phillips et al., 2006 S.J. Phillips, R.P. Anderson and R.E. Schapire, Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions, Ecol. Model. 190 (2006), pp. 231–259. SummaryPlus | Full Text + Links | PDF (901 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (65)

Prance, 1982 G.T. Prance, Forest refuges: evidence from woody angiosperms. In: G.T. Prance, Editor, Biological Diversification in the Tropics, Columbia University Press, New York (1982), pp. 137–158.

Record and Hess, 1943 S.J. Record and R.W. Hess, Timbers of the New World, Yale University Press, New Haven (1943) (reprinted by Arno Press, New York, 1972).

Rodrigues, 1980 W. Rodrigues, Revisao taxonomica das especies de Virola Aublet, Acta Amazonica 1 (1980), pp. 1–127.

Sanchez and Buol, 1975 P.A. Sanchez and S.W. Buol, Soils of the tropics and the world food crisis, Science 188 (1975), pp. 598–603. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (16)

Sanchez et al., 1982 P.A. Sanchez, D.E. Bandy, J.H. Villachica and J.J. Nicholaides III, Amazon Basin soils: management for continuous crop production, Science 216 (1982), pp. 821–827. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (51)

Shabanov et al., 2002 N.V. Shabanov, L. Zhou, Y. Knyazikhin and R.B. Myneni, Analysis of interannual changes in Northern vegetation activity observed in AVHRR data during 1981 to 1994, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40 (1) (2002), pp. 115–130. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (47)

Stark and Jordan, 1978 N. Stark and C.F. Jordan, Nutrient retention by the root mat of an Amazonian Rainforest, Ecology 59 (1978), pp. 434–437. Full Text via CrossRef

Soberón and Peterson, 2005 J. Soberón and A.T. Peterson, Interpretation of models of fundamental ecological niches and species’ distributional areas, Biodiv. Inf. 2 (2005), pp. 1–10.

Stockwell and Peters, 1999 D.R.B. Stockwell and D. Peters, The GARP Modeling System: problems and solutions to automated spatial prediction, Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci. 13 (2) (1999), pp. 143–158. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (223)

Swets, 1988 J.A. Swets, Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems, Science 240 (1988), pp. 1285–1293. MathSciNet | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (1025)

Swets and Pickett, 1992 J.A. Swets and R.M. Pickett, Evaluation of Diagnostic Systems: Methods from Signal Detection Theory, Academic Press, New York (1992).

Tucker, 1979 C.J. Tucker, Red and photographic infrared linear combinations for monitoring vegetation, Remote Sens. Environ. 8 (1979), pp. 127–150. Abstract | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (691)

Tucker et al., 1983 C.J. Tucker, C. Vanpraet, E. Boerwinkel and A. Gaston, Satellite remote sensing of total dry matter production in the Senegalese Sahel, Remote Sens. Environ. 13 (1983), pp. 461–474. Abstract | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (81)

Tukey, 1977 J. Tukey, Exploratory Data Analysis, Addison-Wesley (1977).

Uhl and Vieira, 1989 C. Uhl and I. Vieira, Ecological impacts of selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study of the Paragominas region of the State of Para, Biotropica 21 (1989), pp. 98–106. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (93)

Veríssimo et al., 1992 A. Veríssimo, P. Barreto, M. Mattos, R. Tarifa and C. Uhl, Logging impacts and prospects for sustainable forest management in an old Amazonian frontier: the case of Paragominas, For. Ecol. Manage. 55 (1992), pp. 169–199. Abstract | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (85)

Vianna, 1982 Vianna, N.G., 1982. Conservacao de sementes de anriroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) Circular Tecnico 34, CPATU-EMBRAPA, Belem/PA, Brasil, p. 10.

Vinson et al., 2005 C.C. Vinson, V.C.R. Azevedo, I. Sampaio and A.Y. Ciampi, Development of microsatellite markers for Carapa guianensis (Aublet), a tree species from the Amazon forest, Mol. Ecol. Notes 5 (3) (2005), pp. 33–34. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (8)

Whitmore, 1988 T.C. Whitmore, The influence of tree population dynamics on forest species composition. In: A.J. Davy, M.J. Hutchings and A.R. Watkinson, Editors, Plant Population Ecology, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1988), pp. 271–292.


Corresponding Author Contact InformationCorresponding author at: School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Road, Bristol, BS8 1SS, UK.
posted by Evandro Ferreira @ 23:42  
0 Comments:
Postar um comentário
<< Home
 
Perfil do Autor

Nome: Evandro Ferreira
Cidade: Rio Branco-Ac, Brazil
Quem sou eu: Acreano, nascido em Rio Branco, Pesquisador do Inpa-Ac e do Parque Zoobotânico da UFAC. Mestrado em Botânica no Lehman College, New York, USA, e Ph.D. em Botânica Sistemática pela City University of New York (CUNY) & The New York Botanical Garden (NYBG). Me escreva: evandroferreira@hotmail.com
Veja meu perfil completo
Sobre este Blog

O objetivo deste blog é publicar resumos, e, quando possível, links para os textos completos, de artigos científicos publicados e que abordem, direta ou indiretamente, temas relacionados com a biodiversidade e a sociobiodiversidade acreana. A fonte principal dos artigos é o site SCIELO BRASIL, ou outras quando indicadas. Havendo interesse por alguns dos artigos publicados no blog, sugerimos que os leitores entrem contacto direto com os autores.

Artigos anteriores
Arquivos
Links
Powered by

BLOGGER